25 graphic quality tools commonly used by quality people, must be collected


Effective application of models and tools

, To a large extent to help everyone systematically sort out the quality management process, and improve the efficiency of time utilization! How many of the 25 management graphics tools listed in this article, how many have you used in practice?

Smart principle

SMART principles (S = SPECIFIC, M = Measurable, A = Attainable, R = Relevant, T = Time-Bound) are to facilitate employees to work more and more efficiently, but also provide the appraisal goals for employees’ performance assessment in the future. The assessment standards make the assessment more scientific and standardized, and can ensure the principles of fairness, openness and fairness of the assessment.

Principles explanation:

1. Performance indicators must be specific (SPECIFIC)

2. Performance indicators must be measured

3. Performance indicators must be reached

4. Performance indicators are to have certain correlation with other targets (Relevant)

5. Performance indicators must have a clear deadline for deadline (time-break)

Smart principle specifically indicates:

——S represents specific (SPECIFIC), which means that the performance assessment should cut a specific working indicator, which cannot be generally general;

—— M represents measurable, which means that the performance indicators are quantitative or behavioralized, and the data or information of these performance indicators can be obtained;

——A represents ATTAIINABLE, which means that performance indicators can be achieved without working hard to avoid setting too high or too low targets;

——R represents Relevant, which means that performance indicators are associated with other goals of work; performance indicators are associated with their own job;

——T represents the time limit, focusing on the specific period of completing the performance indicators.

ABC classification method

It is based on the main characteristics of things in terms of technology or economy.


The ABC analysis method is a commonly used analysis method in storage management, and it is also a basic work and understanding method in economic work. The application of ABC analysis is easier to achieve the following results in the storage management: first, compressing the total inventory; second, liberating the capital of the occupied pressure; third, rationalizing the inventory structure; fourth, saving management of management strength.

The application of ABC analysis is easier to achieve the following results in the storage management: first, compressing the total inventory; second, liberating the capital of the occupied pressure; third, rationalizing the inventory structure; fourth, saving management of management strength

SWOT analysis model

In IATF 16949: 2016 Standard “4.1 Understanding Organization and its environment”: “Organization should form a company’s strategy based on internal and external environmental factors.”

So how to effectively carry out strategic analysis and formulation? We recommend using one

Strategic Analysis Tool-SWOT method

: Collect information from the company and external and external, analyze the market environment, identify competitive advantages and risks, and truly formulate the company’s development strategy based on full market analysis and its own conditions.

Successful application of SWOT analysis method:

1. When performing SWOT analysis, we must have an objective understanding of the company’s advantages and disadvantages.

2. When performing SWOT analysis, the company’s current situation and prospects must be distinguished.

3. When performing SWOT analysis, you must consider comprehensive.

4. When performing SWOT analysis, you must compare with competitors, such as better or inferior competitors.

5. Keep the SWOT analysis method simplified to avoid complexity and over -analysis.

6. SWOT analysis varies from person to person.

Scor model

Compared with corporate management, the biggest difference is that the focus of interests is to consider the maximization of the entire supply chain interest, rather than the maximum of the interests of individual enterprises. With the deepening of the cooperation of supply chain members, the integration between enterprises has continued, which has caused the “interest distribution problem” among enterprises.

Faced with the challenges of many supply chain management, manufacturing companies should build an elastic supply chain operation strategy based on market and their own strategic changes, and build a suitable supply chain operation mechanism based on the supply chain operation strategy. The SCOR model is one of the effective methods of supply chain models that are currently very popular.

Supply chain operation reference model (Supply Chain Operations Reference Model, Scor)

It is developed by the International Supply Chain Council (SCC) development support, which is suitable for the reference model of the supply chain operation in different industrial fields. This is a method system that is recognized by the relatively mature enterprise supply chain process in the academic community.


The OR model can be divided into three levels according to the details defined by the process (see Figure 4), and each layer can be used to analyze the operation of the enterprise supply chain. Below the third layer, there can also be more detailed process description levels that belong to each enterprise. The process definition in these levels does not include in the SCOR model.

The characteristics of SCOR’s three -layer structure in supply chain management

The first layer: Provides a wide range of definitions of the types of planning, procurement, production, distribution, and return. It is the starting point for a enterprise to establish a supply chain goal.

The second layer: defines 26 core process directory, which may be part of the supply chain. Enterprises can choose the actual or ideal supply chain that is suitable for their needs in these core processes.

Third layer: Provide enterprises with information that improves the performance and set goals of the supply chain performance. The plan part includes the definition of process elements, problem diagnosis, industry goals, system software capabilities, etc.

ADL matrix

The ADL matrix combines the advantages of the organization itself in the market with the disadvantage with the life cycle stage of the market. One dimension of the ADL matrix is ​​the life cycle stage of the industry, and the other dimension is the competitive position of the enterprise.

Benchmark analysis

It is to compare the activities of the enterprise with the best person engaged in the activity, so as to put forward the action method to make up for its own shortcomings.

KPI key performance index

Building a complete supplier management system can not only be used to evaluate the level of suppliers and divide the level of suppliers, and conduct more targeted management and incentives to the supplier. The goal and the overall goal of the company.

The choice of supplier management (KPI) directly affects the effectiveness of the supplier management system. According to the important degree, five indicators: quality, delivery, cost, ability, and service:

1. Quality indicator (quality)

The main subjects of the quality indicators are: the qualification rate of the incoming batch (qualified camera batch/total batch of the materials × 100%), the qualified rate of the incoming sampling inspection (the total number of qualified samples in the incoming random inspection/total number of samples × 100%), and the samples The qualification rate of the full inspection (total number of qualified samples/total number of sample samples × 100%), and the online waste rate (number of abandonment in the production time/total number of materials × 100%).

In different industries, for different products, the impact, losses and damage expectations of different materials on the quality of different materials on the enterprise are different. The inspection requirements of the materials are different. Some are exempt from inspection; at the same time, different industries and enterprises have different standards for accepting the qualification rate.

Under normal circumstances, for the commodity and raw material materials, such as plastic particles, steel, chemical raw materials, etc., the qualification rate is defined by batch inspection; for large -volume materials such as screws, nuts, and pads The method of defining its qualification rate; for key core components, such as engines, hydraulic cylinders, precision components, etc., the qualification rate is defined by full inspection; The dismissal caused by poorness is the damage caused by human reasons.

At the same time, establish a database of quality problems, track the first inspection and pass rate of the sample, the re -issuing rate of the same quality problem, etc., and incorporate the re -issuing rate of the first inspection and the same quality problem in the quality indicator. Suppliers have an important role in quality rectification.

2. Delivery indicators (Delivery)

Delivery indicators are mainly on time delivers. When most companies move closer to the target of zero inventory, the delivery rate is successful on time. The consequences and quality issues are the same, which is the stop. There are many measuring standards for delivery rates on time, such as delivery according to components, delivery according to order, etc., measured at different standards, and the value of the delivery rate on time and the actual delivery capacity reflected on time is different.

No material is delivered on time, whether it is a small screw pad, or the core engine or braking control component, resulting in the same results: stop line. However, the delivery indicators cannot be simply defined according to the percentage. The same value is different. A Lead Time has only 15 days of machinery, and a Lead Time control component with a length of 180 days. It is also delayed for 10 days. The supplier’s delivery capacity reflect is completely different. We can define the supply capacity of the supplier: target delivery time/(target delivery time+delay delivery time) × 100%. Then, the delivery capacity of machine processing parts is 15/(15+10) × 100%= 60%, and the delivery capacity of control component suppliers is 180/(180+10) × 100%= 95%.

Whether the supplier can deliver on time depends on many factors: one is the safety inventory prepared by the supplier, the other is the production capacity of the supplier; the third is the impact of emergency emergencies; and the fourth is unexpected delay in the transportation process. Through OTD, to find the reasons for delayed delivery, re -formulate a reasonable delivery cycle, gradually improve the order processing plan, and give suppliers to accurate demand predictions.

Many companies only pay attention to the timely delivery rate, but ignore the accuracy of delivery. The accuracy of delivery mainly includes the accuracy of the number of delivery, the accuracy of the type of delivery, and whether there is a mix. If there is a certain uncontrollable factor in delivery rate, the accuracy rate of delivery truly reflects the supplier’s management capabilities.

3. Cost indicator (COST)

Price is one of the most concerned issues for both supply and demand. As a preparation strategy maker and a purchaser, there are annual price reduction requirements and price adjustment requirements caused by the price reduction requirements of raw materials every year.

Under normal circumstances, the price of the same size of the same size should not have a deviation of more than 30%of the same product, and the price deviation of more than 50%occurs. It is often the difference between manufacturers and traders, or the difference between traders and traders. For manufacturing enterprises, if the quotation is above 20%higher than the average price of the same industry, it can basically determine that the product has at least 50%of the gross profit for this product.

Whether suppliers can retain reasonable profit margins, based on the requirements of the purchaser and market price fluctuations, are an important basis for measuring the supplier’s cost index. It is necessary to ensure the reasonable profit space of the supplier and the interests of the purchaser, and to balance the long -term stable cooperation between the supply and demand parties. A must -have road. For how to objectively evaluate the cost of suppliers, please refer to my article “How to Evaluate the Cost of the Supplier”.

4. Capacity

The supplier’s ability indicator assessment is mainly the following aspects:

① The type and employee quality of the supplier: Under normal circumstances, the supplier is a foreign -funded company in China, and the communication will be relatively smooth and efficient. The supplier is a state -owned enterprise or a listed company. Private enterprises or family companies have a flexible communication method, but the overall quality is low. The quality of employees directly affects the overall performance of the enterprise, which in turn affects the purchasing management performance. The purchaser can organize the training of suppliers and require suppliers to participate regularly to improve the quality and business cooperation of supplier employees.

② The types and quantities of suppliers’ equipment: In the traditional manufacturing industry, in general, the number and type of equipment owned by suppliers determine the production capacity and capital strength of the supplier to a certain extent. It is the fundamental condition to ensure quality.

③ The production process and technical level of the supplier: the supplier’s process and technical level determines the design and research and development capabilities of the supplier. Whether the supplier’s understanding of the requirements of the drawing is accurate, whether the assessment of the production cost is objective, whether it can reach the purchaser Whether technical requirements can provide technical support and process optimization for the purchaser.

④ Supplier’s business processes and information level: Whether the supplier’s internal communication is smooth, whether the business process is clear and clear, whether the organization is perfect, will have a great impact on the purchaser’s product procurement progress. As for the relatively complete purchasing party of information technology and network applications, the level of informationization of suppliers determines whether it can be connected with the purchaser data on the new e -commerce purchases.

⑤ Supplier’s cost management capabilities: The cost management capability of suppliers is not only the purchase cost management of the supplier, but also involves the operating costs of the supplier, inventory management costs, transportation costs, and the maintenance cost of fixed assets. These costs will eventually be passed on to the purchaser, and the purchaser has the right to help suppliers to increase management level, reduce management costs, and reduce purchasing costs.

5. Service indicators (service)

The supplier’s service index is involved in the following aspects:

① The degree of cooperation and cooperation of suppliers: Whether the supplier cooperates with quality surveys, whether the goods of the purchaser are coordinated, whether the rectification measures proposed by the purchaser in time, the timely response of the document requirements of the purchaser’s document, whether the purchaser is used as a long period of time Partners and so on. This is an index of biasedness, but it does affect the relationship between supply and demand.


② The timely nature of the quotation: Under normal circumstances, the preliminary assessment of the supplier should not exceed 5 working days, exceeding 5 working days, and basically it can be regarded as the supplier does not pay attention to the inquiry, or inquire about inquiry. The price item is not interested. The possible reasons are the poor business relationship between the supply and demand parties and the no profit space for inquiry projects.

③ The rationality of the quotation: an important indicator of assessing the willingness of suppliers to cooperate sincerely. As a purchaser, it is a necessary job to ensure the reasonable scope of the supplier. However, based on the asymmetry of the information between the supply and demand parties, the purchaser cannot master the real cost of the supplier, but the rationality of the quotation can be compared to analyze the quotation.

Construction of supplier management system based on key performance indicators (KPI):

The value of the key performance indicators (KPI) is to objectively evaluate the comprehensive ability and level of suppliers, and then guide the supplier’s behavior and improve the management and continuous improvement of suppliers. Important basis.

The management system of the supplier is a huge system, but the specific implementation must be based on the principle of “fair and objective, simple and practical, balanced, fast and efficient”.

Justice and objective: Objectiveness means that the data evaluated by the supplier must be objective and real. Based on the correct statistical data, it cannot be subjectively reduced to the supplier because of dissatisfaction with the supplier, nor can it be subjectively due to the tolerance of the supplier. Add points to suppliers.

Simple and practical: The key performance indicators are to use the simplest icons and data to reflect the most authentic issues of the supplier, and they cannot statistics all the data can be statistically statistics.

Weight balance: Balance refers to the important balance of the power of each key indicator. The quality indicators cannot account for 80%, and each of the other items account for 5%. , Different weights.

Fast and efficient: By implementing key performance indicators to measure the level of supplier, you cannot do it for KPI, and treat KPI as a political task. It is necessary to count the supplier’s problem data to KPI as much as possible, and feedback the results to the supplier. During the specified period of time, the supplier is required to reply to improvement and rectification measures to achieve the real purpose of implementing KPI.

Comprehensive quality management

Comprehensive quality management is based on product quality as the core and establishes a scientific and strict and efficient quality system to provide all activities that meet the products or services that users need. In comprehensive quality management, the concept of quality is related to the realization of all management goals.

Basic viewpoint of TQM:

① In “Quality Control”: Quality refers to “the most suitable for customer requirements”, which requires the actual use and price of the product.

“Control”: It means a management method, including the formulation of quality standards, the implementation of the evaluation standards, the planning measures for corrective measures and the planning of improvement standards when deviating standards.

② quality management (job of question Control): effectively control the factors (technical and personnel) that affect product quality (technical and personnel), must be controlled at all stages of the production or service process.

③ Comprehensive quality management is an important means to provide activities such as excellent product design, processing methods and product maintenance services required for high -quality products.

④ Establishing a quality system is the most effective method and means to carry out quality management. Quality management must have the full support of the upper management department.

⑤ From the perspective of interpersonal relationships, quality management organizations should provide product quality information and communication channels; ensure that relevant personnel and departments participate in the entire quality management work.

⑥ Quality cost control: used to measure and optimize comprehensive quality management activities.

⑦The comprehensive quality management work will use mathematical statistical methods.

⑧ Important features of comprehensive quality management: control quality from the root.

The basic working method of promoting comprehensive quality management -PDCA cycle:

P, D, C, A refers to a circular working program for comprehensive quality management.

P: Plan D: Implementation (do) C: Check A: processing (ACTION).

1. P -Plan

The plan is the core of the PDCA method. The highest managers of the enterprise must have a full understanding and grasp of GMP, and actively participate in planning activities. At the same time, basic hardware and software configuration must also meet the requirements and formulate quality system plans.

2. D -Implementation

After the plan is completed, it enters the implementation stage. The first step of implementation: organize employees to learn and understand system documents, and train personnel of relevant positions through training; Step 2: Research and analysis of unpredictable factors during the implementation process, and determine the strain measures that will be taken to emergencies.

3. C -Check

Examination is an important link to promote the continuous rotation of the PDCA method, which is reflected in the mechanism for providing self -improvement and continuous improvement for the quality system.

4. A – Treatment

The processing is the last ring of the PDCA method, but also the part of the next round of PDCA rotation. By timely analysis of the problems found during the inspection session, determine the method of processing and the measures that should be taken, and track and verify the implementation of the measures.

Quality ternary theory or quality trilogy

Juran Trilogy or Quality Trilogy (Quality Trilogy) of Zhu Lan is every company and product and services. If you want to occupy a place in the international market, you must face the “super strict quality requirements”. Strive to achieve world -class quality levels.

The theory divides the management process into three steps: planning, control and improvement. This is the famous “Zhu Lan trilogy”. “Triple characters” is the role of “receiving input information and items; transforming these inputs into product output; delivery of output to customers”. Mode.

DMAIC model

The DMAIC model is a set of operations to implement 6Sigma. DMAIC refers to a data -based improvement cycle of DEFINE, Measure, Analyze, IMPROVE and Control.

DMAIC is an important tool for improvement in the process of management in Liusigma.

Six Sigma Management is not only a concept, but also a way to make breakthroughs in performance. It turns ideas into action and the goal is turned into reality.

DMAIC is the most important and classic management model in 6σ management, mainly focusing on the improvement of the quality of the existing processes. All professional statistical tools and methods involved in 6 σ management run through the links of each 6σ quality improvement project.

1) D (DEFINE) — Defined

Defining is the key factor that identifies the customer’s requirements and determines the customer satisfaction

Determine -Find the problem to solve the problem

Define the problem: combined with the problem, form a powerful 6σ group, at this step, you must seize some key issues:

What are you doing?

Why solve this special problem?

Who is your customers?

What is your customer needs?

How did you do this in the past?

What benefit will be to improve these tasks now?

Develop a DMAIC task book:

The concept of 6σ prompted us to think about the problems that used to be ignored in the past in a new and original way. After grasping some key issues, it is easy to form a DMAIC task book. This task book must not only submit the business authority, but also the goal of solving the problem with the 6σ team. The DMAIC tasks of each company and work projects are different, but the main contents are:

Why choose this case?

What are the special solutions?

What are the restrictions to solve this problem?

How big is the scope involved in this problem?

What are the team members and their responsibilities?

DMAIC’s time arrangement.

2) M (MeaSure) — Measurement

Measurement is the measurement system of calibration Y, collect and organize data, and prepare for quantitative analysis. Measurement is the basis of 6σ management analysis

Collect the basic data of CTQS through measurement, and measurement is the basic work of 6σ management analysis. Quantitative management can make quantitative management possible, and the application of statistical technology and methods is possible with quantitative measurement. In order to obtain real, accurate, and reliable data, the system needs to be calibrated. This is usually the content of the supporting course measurement system.

Data collection also requires some methods of data collection, such as sampling technology, check -ups and check forms.

Measure the key quality indicators:

Both the manufacturing process and the transaction process have input and output. Generally, what needs to be input is represented by x, and the resulting result or output is represented by y. So any process can be expressed as such a function:

y = f (x)

The input is diverse, and even the input also includes some interference factors that affect the results. The input variable x can be a vector, indicating that this input is composed of multiple factors. Function f (x) can be regarded as an operating system for a company or organization. Output Y can also be a vector, such as Y = (product, service, maintenance …) measurement is to collect and measure the key Y and X.

Typical quantitative test example

If the customer is dissatisfied with the supply time, you need to collect several days from receiving orders to sending goods in the past.

For example, a large manufacturer’s DPMO in order processing in the past month is 253 000

For example, the DPMO of the packaging list of a refrigerator in the past year is 85,000

Such as a large shopping mall, the DPMO of the past month is 67000

For example, the DPMO of a monthly bill for a restaurant is 57000

3) A (Analyze) — Analysis

Analysis is the root cause of the use of multiple statistical technical methods.

There are many factors that affect product quality and customer satisfaction. The use of statistical methods can find the main reasons that affect customer satisfaction.

Common statistical analysis tools

Square diagram


Fishbone Diagram

Scatter map

Control Charts

The reasons that affect product quality and customer satisfaction can be summarized into six categories, that is, the people, machines, laws, materials, circles, measurements, etc. shown above

4) I (IMPROVE) —— Improve

Improvement is the main reason that affects y, seeking the relationship between X and Y, and establishing the allowable change range of X

Discover the relationship between y and x

Results and reasons present a model similar to a function, namely: y = f (x1, x2, … xp)+ε. Y is due to variables, x is an independent variable vector, which is the reason for P, called independent variables. ε is a random interference item. It is precisely because of this item that this model really portrayed y and x that there is a close relationship, but Y cannot be completely determined by X. The model is a system, and Y is an irresistible random variable, which is produced by the system, also known as endogenous variables. X is some controllable determined variables, also known as exogenous variables. ε is an uncontrollable random variable. If X and Y describe the relationship between advertising investment and sales volume, it is obvious that the sales volume Y is uncontrollable, and the advertising cost X is controllable. Some other factors that affect the sales volume Y are ε.

Improvement is the key step to achieve the goal

Related analysis, regression analysis, test design, and variance analysis are all statistical tools in the improvement steps. After finding a link and solution to be improved by statistical methods, it is important to implement it. The difficulties in this process are often the long -term habits of employees will not easily change. If the company wants to track funds between various departments and internal departments, at this time, the actual cost will be linked with budget, or variables such as net saving funds, project scope, and project ending time. By tracking the data correctly, the regression model is established, and the regression model is used to predict and control it, so that the company’s income and customer satisfaction can be maximized. Improve this step is the key to achieving goals, which is similar to the “optimization of your workflow” in the six -step method.

5) C (Control) —— Control

Control is to control the deviation of the main variable to the scope of the license.

If there is no work description and procedure, you can’t control the control

After a certain improvement of the process, the problem is that insisting on avoiding the “sudden” habits and processes is the main purpose of control. The success of the 6σ project depends on those who always adhere to the same. During the control process, everyone in each link in the process must have a job description. Without work descriptions and procedures, it is not controlled. The initial stage of any process is crucial. Correct the cost of correcting defects during the production cycle:

Found a defect in the early stage, cost $ 1

Found a defect in design, spend $ 10

Found a defect in the experiment, spend $ 100

A defect was found at the scene, costing $ 1,000.

SixSigma (SixSigma)

Six Sigma is a principles and technologies that can strictly, concentrate and efficiently improve the quality of corporate process management. With the perfect business pursuit of “zero defects”, it drives a substantial reduction in quality costs. Breakthrough.

Boston matrix

Boston matrix believes that there are two basic factors that generally determine the product structure:

That is market gravity and corporate strength.

Market gravity includes the growth rate of corporate sales (amount), target market capacity, strong and weak competitors, and profits. The most important one is the comprehensive indicator of market gravity -sales growth rate, which is an external factors that determine whether the company’s product structure is reasonable.

Enterprise strength includes market share, technology, equipment, capital utilization capacity, etc. Among them, the market share is the inherent element that determines the product structure of the enterprise.

It directly shows the competitiveness of the company.

The sales growth rate of the sales and the market share influence each other, but also the conditions: large market gravity and high market share, which can show the good prospects of product development. Enterprises also have corresponding adaptability and strong strength. Without the corresponding high market share, it means that there is no enough strength of the enterprise, and the product cannot develop smoothly. Instead, the company’s strong strength, and the small market gravitational products also indicate that the product’s market prospects are not good.

DuPont analysis

DuPont analysis method uses the relationship between several major financial ratio to comprehensively analyze the financial status of the company. It is a classic method for evaluating the company’s profitability and the level of return of shareholders and the level of return of shareholders.

Script method

The script method, also known as the prospect description method, and the situation analysis method, is a method of predicting the possible situation of the predicted object or the consequences of the consequences of the predicted object or the consequences of the future.

PEST analysis model

PEST analysis refers to the analysis of the macro environment. The macro environment is also called the general environment, which refers to all macro factors that affect the industry and enterprises. Analysis of macro -environmental factors, different industries and enterprises according to their own characteristics and business needs, the specific content of the analysis will be different, but generally respond to politics, Economic, Social, and technology The four major categories affect the main external environmental factors of enterprises.

QFD method (quality function development)

The QFD method is a systematic decision -making technology. In the design stage, it ensures that the customer’s requirements are accurately converted into product definition; in the production preparation stage, it can ensure that the product definition reflecting the customer’s requirements is accurately converted to the wrong way to accurately convert it to the definition of the customer to accurately convert it to the wrong way to accurately convert it to it with an errorless conversion to the definition of the customer. Product manufacturing process; during the production and processing stage, it can ensure that the products manufactured fully meet the needs of customers.

Total cost method of ownership

It is a technical evaluation standard often adopted by a company. Its core idea is to have the overall cost of the home property and the total cost of annual cost within a certain period of time.

ECR system (effective consumer response system)

ECR is a circulation model that integrates the integration of manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers, with the lowest cost and best realization of consumer demand at the lowest cost.

Balanced score card

The balanced score card is a new performance management system that has implemented the strategy of the organization as a operating measurement indicator and target value from the perspective of finance, customer, internal operations, learning and growth. The purpose of designing a balanced score card is to establish a performance management system of “implementing strategic guidance” to ensure that the corporate strategy is effectively implemented. Therefore, people usually call the balanced score card is the most effective strategic management tool for strengthening corporate strategic execution.

PIMS analysis (strategic and performance analysis)

Also called PIMS database analysis method, its meaning is the impact of market strategy on profits. The main purpose is to find out how the market share impact on the performance of a business unit.

Pretto law

Also known as the 80/20 rule, the reasons and results, input and output, efforts and remuneration were originally unbalanced. The reference line obtained is a 80/20 relationship.

Karajack matrix

Based on the two important aspects involved in procurement as their dimensions: Profit Impact: the strategic impact of procurement projects in terms of product value -added, total cost ratio of raw materials, and product income. Supply risk (SUPPLY RISK): The complexity of the market, the pace of technological innovation and the replacement of raw materials, the threshold for market entry, logistics costs and complexity, and supply monopoly or shortage. Divide suppliers into four categories, leverage suppliers, bottleneck suppliers, strategic suppliers and non -critical project suppliers.

Gantt chart

Also called horizontal diagram and strip map. It vividly represents the activity order and duration of any specific project through the list and time scale.

Fishbone Diagram

The fish bone map was invented by Mr. Ishikawa, a master of Japanese management, so it is also known as Ishikawa. Fish bone map is a kind of

The method of discovering the “fundamental cause”

It can also be called “iShikawa” or “causal map”.

It is characterized by simple and practical, in -depth and intuitive. It looks like a fish bone, and the problem or defect (that is, the consequences) is marked outside the fish head.

Growing fishbone on the fish bone, the possible causes of production problems on the above opportunities will help explain how the causes affect each other.

The characteristics of the problem are always affected by some factors. Through the brainstorming method, everyone finds these factors and puts them with the characteristic values. It is called the characteristics of the characteristics and characteristics.

1. Type introduction


Sort out the problem -type fish bone picture

(There is no cause relationship between the elements and the characteristics, but the structural constitutional relationship)


Reasonable fish bone picture

(The fish head is right, the characteristic value is usually written “why …” to write)


Countermeasure fish bone picture

(The fish head is on the left, the characteristic value is usually written by “how to improve/improve …”)

2. Making fish bones in two steps:

The first step, the cause of the problem/structure

A. For the problem point, choose a different method (such as human -machine materials, etc.).

B. Find the possible causes (factors) of the various layers according to brainstorming.

C. The various elements that are found are classified and sorted out to clarify their belongings.

D. Analysis and selection of important factors.

E. Check the description method of each element to ensure that the grammar is concise and clear.

The main points of the analysis are as follows:

A. When determining that the big cause (big bone), on -site operations generally start with the “human -machine material method”. The management problem generally follows the “personnel time and earth” layer. The specific situation should be determined;

B. Big must be described in neutral words (not explained), and medium and small must be judged by value (such as … bad);

C. When the brain is turbulent, you should find the possible causes as many and all as possible, not limited to the content that you can completely control or are being executed. For people’s reasons, it is advisable to analyze from action rather than ideological attitudes;

D. Due to the characteristic values ​​and small reasons for the reason, the problem-the problem is related to the middle, the problem must be directly analyzed to the countermeasures;

e. If some reason can be attributed to two or more factors at the same time, please refer to those with the strongest correlation (Consider the three cosmeticism if necessary: ​​that is, now to see the existing objects at the scene, compare the relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of the relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of relative conditions, find the comparison of the relative conditions, find the comparison of the relative conditions, find the comparison of the relative conditions. Those with the strongest correlation should be classified.)

f. When selecting important reasons, do not exceed 7 items, and it should be identified at the end of the end;

Step 2: Fish Bone Picture Drawing Program

A. Fill in the fish head (described in a way that is not good) and draw the main bone

B. Draw a big bone and fill in the major cause

C. Draw the middle bones and small bones, fill in the small and small cause

D. Make important factors with special symbols

Process points: When drawing, it should be ensured that the large bone and the main bone should be 60 degrees.

2. Use steps

(1) Find the problem to solve;

(2) Write the problem on the head of the fish bone;

(3) Call colleagues to discuss the possible causes of the problem together, and find out as much as possible;

(4) Sign the same problem on the fish bone;

(5) Solving your opinions according to different issues, and summarize the correct reasons;

(6) Get out any question and study why this problem occurs?

(7) Ask the answer to the question? In this way, at least five levels (asking five questions in a row);

(8) When deepening to the fifth level, when it is considered that it is impossible to continue, the reasons for these problems are listed, and at least 20 solutions are listed.

Come on, draw a picture together.

1. Draw a backbone bone and fish head. The fish head can be made or next.

2. Write the problem to be solved on the fish head

3. Drawing big bones, generally draw six large bones, 60 degrees with the main bone. These six big bones are the six aspects of analyzing problems.

4. Call the meeting and use brainstorms for review. As much as possible to ask the possible causes of the problem, it is not opposed or cracking in the process. Organize all the reasons, discuss together, and remove the reasons for repetition and meaningless

5. Fill in six large bones in accordance with the classification of “people, machines, materials, laws, circles, and measurements”, and then discuss one by one to find out the most likely reasons and mark it.

In the process of brainstorming, you must not interrupt the speeches of others, do not criticize or oppose it, and prevent it from being strangled.

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