An article “Aviation Science” reads all aviation engines and understands principles!

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When we also struggle for the status of aviation in the Chinese science and technology community, the world has quietly formed a global aviation engine pattern that is far more stringent, more highly monopolized, and stricter than the aircraft industry.

Western countries such as the United States, Britain, France, and Germany have monopolized the world’s aviation engines and gas turbines (this article does not involve the gas turbine) market through its oligopoly companies. The US -British and French oligarchs, including its joint venture, occupy 70%of the world ’s aviation engine market, and the value share in the new machine market is as high as 90%.

There are ten companies that can build aircraft around the world, and there are only a few independent aviation engine suppliers.

The aviation engines of the United States and Russia have profound heritage, but Russia’s “tiger” is thrown behind the West, especially in the world market, especially in the world market.

World Large -scale Civil Aviation Engine

Universal Electric (GE)

Prate Whitney (PW), USA

Roys Royce (RR) in the UK

And these three companies are established with the French Safran Group (Safran):

Snakma International CFMI (SAFRAN/GE)

IAE (RR/PW)

EA (GE/PW)

These companies have the ability to independently develop an aviation engine, which almost controls the core technology research and development, assembly integration, sales and customer service of large global civil aviation engines.

Military and small aviation hair fields

Snecma (Snecma)

Honeywell, USA

German MTU

Italy Avio

Russian Saturn

Russian ritual artillery company

They have a relatively complete production capacity. In addition to the entire field research and development and market capabilities in their respective fields, they also provide top enterprises with large and first -level suppliers of core components.

The supplier of the next level

Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industry

Kawasaki, Japan

Ishikawa Ishikawa Broadcasting Heavy Industry

South Korea Samsung Technology Company

Suppliers represented by Japanese and Korean companies have powerful component processing and manufacturing capabilities, mainly providing engine parts products for higher -level companies.

In order to maintain a long -term leading and advantageous position in the field of aviation hair, Western countries have taken many measures at the government and enterprise levels. In terms of R & D investment, project investment, industrial chain control, intellectual property protection, technical output control, etc., it has built a high industrial threshold to block the development and catch -up of other countries and enterprises, let alone later.

This is the world pattern of aviation engines. In the face of such a pattern, we can only start from the national righteousness and national interests, and take on a difficult historical mission.

Like in the field of large civil aircraft, no matter how difficult it is, we must also be like the current pattern of A + B + C (Comac) tritenca, which is also a new pattern of AIRBUS + B (BOEING). Join the world’s aviation engine “Strong Man Club” to make the world’s east formed, thereby gradually changing the world pattern of the aviation engine, although this process will be very long.

In the next 20 years, military engine demand predictions

Comprehensive two prediction reports released by the “Property and Research Think Tank” and “China Business Industry Research Institute”, after the necessary correction, the total demand for the Chinese military aviation engine in the next 20 years is 22,000 units (of which 1,000 units required for export military aircraft), worth 600 $ 100 million (about 400 billion RMB). The average annual is 1100 units, worth 20 billion RMB. According to the value, 80%, 5%, and 15%of the new military machinery equipment, old military machine maintenance and helicopters are each.

The unit price of the new fighter engine is calculated at a high and low average price. The new machine equipment ratio is calculated at 1.15, the number of renewal times is calculated as 1. Part of the data is settled. In principle, military engine engines should be used, or at least 90%of them should be used.

F-16

F-16 fighter’s F100 turbine engine

F-35

F-35’s F-135 engine

F-22

F-22’s F-119 engine

J-10

The AL-31 engine of the J-10

J-15

AL-31H engine close-up of the J-15

J-31

The RD-93 engine of the J-31

J-20

A close-up of an engine used by the J-20

In the next 20 years, the needs of Chinese passenger/cargo machines to forecast

Based on Airbus and Boeing’s predictions on the number of new customers/cargo aircraft in the next 20 years, they are 5363/830 billion US dollars and 6330/950 billion US dollars. After the average value, according to 30%of the engine value of the engine, the market for the civil air engine in the next 20 years will be $ 258 billion and the engine is about 5,700 units. Considering that domestic civil engines are growing, they will strive to share 20-30%of the share, that is, 1100 to 1700 units, about 57 billion US dollars.

A380 passenger plane

遄 9 900 installed on the A380 prototype 900

Boeing 787 passenger plane

Ruida 1000 installed on Boeing 787

The aircraft was born for more than a century. From 36 meters to global flight, human aviation technology continues to advance, and the continuous evolution of power has made more flight methods possible. So how many aircraft engines are there? Today, let’s make a simple and rudely enumerate to make you understand.

First of all, there are only two simple classifications of aviation engines that are applied to, that is, “

Piston engine

“and”

Gas turbine engine

“, Gas turbine engine is often simply called”

Jet engine

Piston engine series

The piston aircraft is consistent with the current common car engine principles. Relying on gas to blast in the cylinder and promote the piston workmanship. All the piston engine depends on this principle. The piston engine is divided into the following types according to different cylinders.

Star piston engine

In the early days, the aircraft mostly used air -cooled methods to cool the engine. To put it plainly, it is directly blowing the cylinder. The cylinder arranged by the star -shaped layout can make each cylinder evenly dissipate.

Star -type engine diagram

Star -type engine and propeller

Star -shaped engine has been used on the plane since 1903.

The star engine has a defect, that is, the more cylinders, the greater the power, the larger the diameter, so the only thicker the aircraft can … this means that the resistance becomes greater. Later, a line -up engine and V -type engine appeared.

This is an example of a high -power star engine. Well, very, very, very

Diagram of the inline engine principle

Inline engine

The inline engine is basically the same as today’s car engines. When the cylinder stands in a row, it is obviously more slender than the star engine when it is installed in the head. However, there are also disadvantages in the inline type. The more cylinders, the longer the engine. If you want to use 7 cylinders and 9 cylinders like the star shape, the length is simply unreasonable. So the compact V -type engine appeared, allowing the cylinder to stand in two rows.

This slender and beautiful head can be achieved only by a inline engine or V -type engine.

V -type engine

On the front, the V -type engine cylinder is arranged into a letter V shape

So when the V -shaped engine is not much increased, the number of cylinders can be doubled.

Horizontal opposite engine

Turn the angle of V to 180 degrees, and it can also be made into a horizontal opposite engine.

The horizontal opposite engine cylinder is arranged, and the horizontal opposite engine has the characteristics of small torque vibration. Many cash piston engines of fixed -wing aircraft and helicopters using this form of engine are using this form.

The Xirui SR20 aircraft and Robinson R22 helicopters are common air tour models. They use horizontal opposite piston engines, which are economically reliable.

Jet engine series

Turbine jet engine

The turbine jet engine is a kind of engine that uses the gas to expand after the gas blasting.

The turbine jet engine schematic diagram, the turbine jet engine, referred to as a turbojet engine, has a long history.

In 1937, the world’s first turbine jet engine began to run. When starting the turbos engine, you need to rotate the engine rotor to the running speed first. The turbojet engine is compressed by air from the front gas press. The compressed air is ignited in the combustion room and then the turn. Relying on the pneumatic connection with the front axis and the front of the front, it can operate continuously at the beginning.

The state of continuous operation of the turbojet engine

In 1970, General Electric’s J85-GE-17A turbojet engine

The MiG 25 fighter that can reach the speed of 3 times the speed also uses a turbojet engine

It is easy to find the difference between the two turbofan engines and the turbojet engine. Stosido has only one air channel, which is called “Handao”, but the turbofan engine has two air channels. In other words, the turbojet engine is a single culvert engine, and the turbofan is a dual -culvert engine.

The turbofan engine is divided into connotation roads and external sidewalks. The principle of connotation is no different from simple turboscopic engines. It is called the core machine. The core machine drives a large fan in front to promote the airflow, plus the external stroke of the external rectifier.

When the engine is running, the ratio of the air flow to the connotation road is called the culvert. The law is that the larger the Hanada, the greater the fuel saving, the better the economy, and the high Han Dao’s engine has very good energy efficiency at the speed of Asian sounds, so it is widely used in passenger aircraft, transport aircraft, etc.

Passenger planes and business planes are generally used by large Handao Dao Bi fan engine

The low -culverts used by the fighter than the turbofan engine, which saves fuel, can provide more motivation at high speed

The main thrust of Gao Handao’s engine is not from the high temperature gas sprayed backwards, but from the air from the high speed of the external road.

Most of the modern fighters also use turbofan engines, but in order to pursue high -altitude supersonic properties, the engine with low culvert ratio is used.

Turboprop engine

Schematic diagram of work principle of turboprop engine

A turboprop jet engine, referred to as turbopoly engine.

The essence of the turboprop engine is similar to that of the turbojet engine connects a reducer and drives the external propeller.

The turboprop engine is usually used on a small or low -speed Asian speed aircraft.

Domestic new boat 60 line passenger aircraft, using a turboprop engine

The world’s largest seaplane, the 600 dragon 600 also uses a turboprop engine

Figure-95 bomber engine

Simplication diagram of coaxial reverse propeller

The strategic bomber map of the combat nation uses turboprop power, the double-layer to the propeller, and the speed of the turbofan engine aircraft is pushed to the speed of Gaoya at 925 kilometers. It is a relatively extreme example and the biggest noise bomber. Most turboprop engine aircraft is below 800 kilometers.

Paddle engine

The fuel efficiency of the turboprop engine is usually higher than the turbofan engine, but it is not perfect. One of the reasons is that there is an extra reducer on the turboprop engine, which is the gear gear.

The existence of gear gear is increased by the engine weight, and the second is that how much will bring some power loss.

To this end, an engine that does not require a transmission gear came into being, it is the paddle fan engine. You can also understand the engine of the paddle fan as a turbofan engine without an external road.

The paddle fan and dual propellers are turned into this way. Because the propeller of the paddle fan engine is the same speed as the engine, the propeller speed of the paddle fan is much higher than the turboprop engine, bringing greater motivation, higher fuel economy At the same time, the noise of the paddle fan engine is also very terrible because of the sharp growth of the speed of the speed. Generally, it is not used on a passenger aircraft that requires comfortable and quiet. At present, only military transport aircraft are used.

The propeller of the paddle fan is directly installed on the main axis of the engine center. Therefore, the propeller rotation speed is the same as the engine speed, and the noise is very huge.

The paddle fan also has propellers behind.

Turbine shaft engine

The turbine shaft engine, as the name suggests, uses shaft to transmit power. This engine is generally suitable for aircraft that do not need to directly provide air thrust, such as helicopters.

The principle of the helicopter’s transmission is actually very complicated, but this simple schematic diagram is easier to understand the use of turbine shaft engines.

The turbine shaft engine of the helicopter is to transport the power of the engine to the main rotor by the transmission shaft, and then the main rotor is rotated to provide lift. Therefore, this is similar to the output of the general piston engine. For ordinary diesel engines and gasoline engines, the turbine shaft engine is lighter and the power is greater. It is a very good source of power.

The two square tube on the back of the Apache helicopter is its two turbine shaft engines.

Stamping engine

(A) Torque engine (B) The stamping engine can see that the stamping engine saves a series of air compressors and turbine structures, which becomes lighter, but only at high speeds can run normally.

The stamping engine is the same as the turbos engine from the working principle, but in fact, because all the turbine structure is eliminated, the stamping engine cannot be attributed to the category of the gas turbine engine.

The stamping engine removed a series of air compressor structure in the front. Because the faster the aircraft flies, the faster the air coming on. When the supersonic speed is reached, the air is naturally pressed into the airway and forms high air pressure. High -pressure air enters the combustion chamber, mixes fuel, and is burned violently and ejected to the power to obtain power. It should be noted that the stamping engine can only run at a very high speed.

The fastest aircraft SR-71 black bird high-altitude high-speed reconnaissance aircraft currently put into use

The current example of successful use is the American ultra-high-speed reconnaissance machine SR-71 “Blackbird”. Blackbirds can reach 3 times the speed. In a 3x speed, its internal structure can be changed to stamping the structure and change the structure to stamping the structure to stamping the structure to stamping the structure. The engine mode is running.

Pearl on the Crown of Modern Industry

Aviation engines and ground gas turbines are known as the “crown” of modern industries, and they are one of the important signs of national comprehensive strength. Increasing the performance of aviation engines must improve the performance of its key components -turbine blades. The turbine blades are listed as the first key parts due to the highest temperature, the most complicated stress, and the worst environment, and are known as the “pearl on the crown”. The turbine blades are also called motion blades. They are the worst parts of working conditions in the turbine engine and the most important rotary component.

The gas import temperature of advanced aviation engines reaches 1380 ° C and thrust is 226kn. The turbine blades bear the effect of pneumatic and centrifugal force. The leaves are about 140MPa with stress on the leaf part. In the future, the casting process of engine blades directly determines the performance of the engine, and it is also a significant sign of a national aviation industry level.

The state of continuous operation of the turbojet engine

The paddle fan also has propellers behind.

In addition to high temperature conditions, the working environment of the hot -end blades is also in the extreme state of high pressure, high load, high vibration, and high corrosion. Therefore, the blades are required to have extremely high comprehensive performance. The use of special manufacturing processes (precision casting and fixed -finging) is made to make special matrix tissues (single crystal tissue) in order to maximize the needs. Complex single crystal hollow turbine blades have become the core technology of the current high -push heavy ratio engine. Advanced military and commercial aviation engines play a key role. At present, single -crystal blades have not only been installed on all advanced aviation engines, but also more used on heavy gas turbines.

Turbo blades manufacturing technology

The development of turbine blades has gone through three stages: fine crystal reinforcement, directional solidification and casting single crystal.

For more than half a century, the temperature capacity of turbine blades has increased from 750 ° C in the 1940s to about 1500 ° C in the 1990s to about 2000 ° C. The nickel -based high -temperature alloy single crystal blades can increase the working temperature of 25 ° C ~ 50 ° C compared with the directional solidification blades, and each increase of 25 ° C is equivalent to improving the work of the leaves by 3 times from the perspective of work efficiency. It should be said that this huge achievement is the common contribution made by leaf alloys, casting processes, leaves design and processing, and the common development of surface coatings.

The temperature in front of the modern aviation engine has greatly increased the temperature. The front temperature of the F119 engine turbine is as high as 1900 ~ 2050K. The turbine blades cast by traditional craftsmanship cannot withstand such a high temperature and even melted and cannot work effectively. Single crystal turbine blades successfully solved the problem of high temperature resistance to the 10 -level engine turbine blade. The excellent high temperature resistance of monocrystalline turbine blades mainly depends on the entire blade only one crystal, thereby eliminating the primary crystal and directional crystalline blades polycrystals. Structural defects in the high temperature performance of the crystal world.

Single crystal blades’ solidification defects

Single -crystal turbine blades are the most manufacturing processes, the longest period, the lowest period, the lowest pass rate, and the most stringent engine parts in all parts of aviation engines. The process of manufacturing single crystal turbine blades includes cores, cores, core sintering, core inspection, matching of core and appearance molds, wax mold pressure injection, wax mold X -ray inspection, wax mold wall thickness detection, wax mold trimming , Waxing combination, crystal system system and sinking portfolio, coating with sand, shell drying, shell -shaped dewaxing, shell -shaped roasting, blade pouring Removal, polishing, string width measurement, blades X -ray inspection, X -ray negative check, type facial inspection, refined leaves, leaf wall thickness detection, final inspection and other manufacturing links. In addition, the design and manufacturing work of turbine blades must be completed.

The “Ufa Engine Industry Association (JSC)”, which is affiliated to the United Engine Corporation (UEC), is making turbine blades that are manufacturing aviation engines.

Here is processing porcelain soil, crushing the porcelain soil, and making the inner core of the turbine blades.

This is the porcelain soil before processing.

Workers are checking the shaped porcelain soil models one by one. These well -made porcelain soil models will be first fired into a melting quartz ceramic core.

The turbine jet engine requires a hollow turbine blade. Only the high -quality ceramic core is the best internal core material cast by waxing method. It can still maintain stability when casting metal. Leave the required air channels in the leaves.

This is a porcelain soil model waiting for processing, wrapped beeswax on the outside for losing wax casting in order to get turbine blades. The porcelain soil model can be made into a very small cross -section and deformed in the process of processing.

Women who work here are women. Careful and patient women can be competent here to be tedious, and they need to be serious and responsible.

These porcelain soil models are actually air channels in the blades. When the engine is running, the air is passed in it, so as to cool the turbine blades to maintain stable work.

Workers are preparing to cast interfaces.

These interfaces will be installed with two to four leaves, so that when casting melting melting metals, efficiency can be improved.

Workers are wrapped beeswax for ceramic cores, and the role of beeswax is to form an empty cavity in the casting model.

Workers are installing beeswax leaves on the casting interface.

The beeswax leaves of ceramic core have been wrapped.

The thick structure is a metal runway when casting, and the leaves are actually very small.

The leaf is processed at the end, so that the melting metal can fill the cavity without causing the cast sand eye.

Machined casting model.

There are many similar models here to produce different specifications of turbine blades.

The next step is to wrap these cast models to wrap porcelain soil and make Tao Fan.

Workers put a rotary machine installed by the casting model.

Use a robotic hand to rotate in the clay solution so that it is evenly wrapped in any part of the model.

This can be considered qualified.

Then add a special fan box to spray porcelain soil in the outside to form a thick shell.

Workers operating machinery.

Waiting for the casting model for processing.

This is the casting model after wrapping the pottery.

Dry here.

Precision casting workshop.

The casting model is cast here.

First hear the porcelain soil wrapped outside the casting model into ceramic models.

At the same time, the internal beeswax is discharged to form a casting cavity.

Workers take out the casting model.

These models will then cast special alloy solutions.

Each model must be processed by a special melting furnace.

This is a model production of a large component.

The temperature is very high.

Finally, the produced leaves also need to perform X -ray detection.

Each blade must have multiple angles to prevent any flaws.

X -ray photos, you can see the empty cavity inside the leaves.

Workers are checking X -rays.

The production process of the entire turbine blade is very complicated, completely surpassing the jewelry manufacturing industry, and this is just a small part of the “diamonds in the crown of the industrial crown” -the part of the air engine manufacturing.

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