Science science the basic knowledge, design points and calculation methods of the stairs!
It is the passage of the two spaces up and down smoothly. It must be reasonable in structure and according to standards. Each level of the stairs should be 15 cm high and 28 cm wide; it is required that the designer has a thorough understanding and grasp of the size in order to make the design of the staircase facilitate, and the space occupies at least the least space. Essence According to the actual situation, the height of the stairs should be less than 18 cm and the width should be greater than 22 cm. From the perspective of architectural art and aesthetics, stairs are the focus of vision and a highlight of the master’s personality.
The stairs of the duplex structure are essential. The stairs are a connection between “upper” and “down” in the home, but not only that, between this up and down, it is necessary to be safe and convenient.
(1) Let the space decide the form
In terms of form, the stairs can be roughly divided into three types:
—— The most common and simplest, quite lonely taste, geometric lines give people a strong and “hard” feeling. The straight ladder plus the platform can also achieve corners;
——In the curve to achieve the connection of upstairs, beautiful, and can be done very wide. There is no kind of rigid feeling of the corner of the straight ladder. It is the most comfortable way to walk;
——The minimal occupation of space, and the winding trend hovering also fascinates many people.
When choosing a house, the size and height of the space have been fixed, and it is difficult to change. In order to be convenient and comfortable to go upstairs, the stairs need a reasonable slope. The slope of the stairs is too steep and it is not convenient to walk, which will give people a sense of “danger”. If you easily pick up the stage, you need a certain space to extend the stairs.
In the case of plenty of spatial scale and layer height, what kind of stairs to choose are not a problem, but if these two conditions are restricted, you have to consider it carefully to facilitate space saving. For a small space, the spin ladder is a wise choice. Therefore, choosing your stairs, the final decision may not really be your subjective requirement. The “content” of the space determines the form of the stairs.
(2) Let your family decide the slope
For the choice of stairs, it is also arranged according to the members of the family. Although they are all a family, there are differences in physical condition between individuals, and they are always strong and weak. The elderly and children belong to the most needed party at home. They probably hope that the slope of the stairs is slower, the steps are wider, the steps are shorter, or they also hope that the rotation of the stairs should not be too strong. When you feel at ease.
Observe the height difference of the beginning and end of the stairs. The so -called first and last steps of the stairs are connected to the ground
First -level step, the last level of steps connected to the floor. These two steps are not only the connection point of the upper and lower space, but also the support point of the stairs. They are the most critical parts of the entire stairs. At these two levels, the most prone problem is that the step height is inconsistent with other levels in the middle of the stairs. The most taboo stairs are the high and low of each step.
Most people have a feeling of being tripped or stepping on the stairs, and these two tastes will make people a shocking cold sweat. Because when people go up and downstairs, the sense of rhythm has been stored in the head, becoming a very natural thing. At this time, if it is suddenly interrupted, and it is on a steep surface, it will definitely bring horrible horror Essence
The reason for the high and low and low say is not complicated. If it is a prefabricated staircase, the height of the space can be calculated with the length of the staircase to calculate the step height of each step. However, if it is a post -processing staircase, the space is fixed, and the size of the stairs is also prefabricated. There must be contradictions between the two fixed size. Only the size of the stairs can be matched with the size of the space. This is inevitable that it is inappropriate. Generally speaking, this adjustment will enter the first and last levels of the stairs
The staircase is designed, and the middle section remains unchanged. Therefore, the height of the first and last steps may not match the middle section.
It has a certain reason to arrange this adjustment in the first and last paragraphs, because everyone is always the most cautious when they step on the first step of the stairs. After taking it up, they are familiar with the rhythm of steps and the alert in their hearts. Will gradually relax. And at this relaxed moment, we are walking in the middle of the stairs, so the height of the steps in the middle of the stairs must remain unchanged.
If there is a change, then it must be controlled in a reasonable range. Generally speaking, within 4cm, it is usually 2cm to 3cm. The scope of the first and last steps must also be controlled.
First, the noise should be small.
The stairs must not only be strong, safe and beautiful, but it should not make too much noise when used.
Second, use environmentally friendly materials.
Just as furniture is composed of materials, the “furniture” of the stairs is also composed of “materials”. For example, the steps of solid wood need to be painted.
Third, to eliminate sharp corners.
All components of the stairs should be smooth and rounded, and there are no prominent and sharp parts, so as not to cause unintentional damage to users.
Fourth, pay attention to the warmth of the handrail. Using metal as a railing armrest of the stairs, it is best to ask the manufacturer to deal with the surface of the metal, especially in the north. The cold feeling of metal in winter will make people particularly uncomfortable.
Fifth, construction should be fast and convenient.
Choose the stairs and choose the installation method of the stairs. Fast and convenient installation will make sense for you and neighbors. The convenient installation method will reduce noise and dust to the minimum during the installation process. In addition, the staircase that needs to be welded has hidden safety hazards during the installation process, and odors and dust are also pollution to the home environment.
There are rotating, straight running, arc staircases and alien staircases from the form; compared to the top -level attic -type houses with smaller space, rotating stairs and direct running stairs and alien staircases are generally applicable. You can choose a magnificent arc staircase with a jumping residence.
Straight stairs -this is the most common form of staircase in actual operation. The shape of the straight down is the simplest, and it is quite straight to the nine days. Staircase
Simple geometric lines give people a strong and tough feeling. The straight ladder is not as possible, and it can also implement the corner design. The arc ladder -contrary to the straight ladder, it uses the curve to achieve the connection of upstairs. This kind of staircase is beautiful and generous, and it can be done relatively spacious, without the rigid feeling of the corner of the straight ladder. The arc ladder is the most comfortable way to walk in three stairs;
The main feature of the spin -rotor is the smallest area of the space, and the winding trend hovering really makes many personalized consumers move.
Material “mix and match” is more interesting
If the stairs are distinguished by materials, it can be roughly divided into four categories:
Wooden staircase is the most market share staircase. Wooden stairs have a good warmth, giving a warm feeling. However, the wooden staircase has poor abrasion resistance and is not easy to maintain and maintain.
The glass staircase glass staircase is in line with the trend of transparent, and is more popular with the avant -garde people. The advantages of glass stairs are light, line sensuality, durable, without any maintenance, the disadvantage is that it will give people a cold feeling. The glass used for the pedal is generally tempered glass, with large weights, and the optimal glass is the best.
The marble staircase marble staircase is more suitable for rooms with marble grounds in the room to protect the uniformity of the indoor color and materials. Although the marble pedal is tough and slippery (generally to add anti -sliding bars), the decorative effect is luxurious, easy to maintain, moisture -proof and wear -resistant, and is widely used in villas with large space.
Young people of iron stairs like to choose iron stairs very much, and their forms have a strong atmosphere of the times. The iron staircase comes from factory design and manufacturing. Its shape is novel and varied, does not occupy space, and is convenient for installation and disassembly.
In addition to the above four types of materials, there are steel stretch stairs, hemp rope plus wooden board stairs, etc., but it is not a mainstream product, and it is rare in the store.
In the material of the stairs, more people like to use “mix and match”, such as wood iron combination, stainless steel and glass combination, etc., more than a single pure material, one more element will have a more interest.
It is safe and fashionable
The staircase is the same simple furniture. It cannot ignore its details when buying:
The staircase has the function of the path in the room, so it is a top priority. The safety of the stairs first reflects its load -bearing capacity, especially the glass stairs, which is especially important whether it can bear the “heavy” of the family. In fact, some anti -slip measures must be taken after the stairs are installed. Wooden pedals can choose special non -slip pads (gel back pads) or sticky metal particles. If it is a glass pedal, apply anti -slide strips or scrub; again, all components of the stairs should be smooth and rounded, and there is no outstanding and sharp part to avoid damage to the family.
If the metal is used as the railing of the staircase, it is best to do it on the surface of the metal to prevent the metal from being cold and uncomfortable in winter. At the same time, the diameter of the handrail of the stairs should be 5.5 cm, because the human tiger’s mouth is generally 5.5 cm, which will be very comfortable to support.
The style of the stairs must be consistent with the decoration of the entire home. If the room is full of golden and brilliant, only the stairs are rude, and it will become a defeat.
Once the plain stairs have fashionable elements, it will be extraordinary. Fashion is the return of human nature. In staircase design, it is trying to leave the classic standards set by the design masters and artists for it, and began to try to integrate with the owner’s own personality.
Like all furniture, the stairs may volatilize and harmful chemicals, such as the steps of solid wood through the paint process, which is easy to be ignored. When buying stairs, check whether it is environmentally friendly materials and its production process is environmentally friendly. Parameter standards for stairs
The height of the staircase ceiling (the distance from the front end of the building to the ceiling): Generally, it should be about 2 meters, and the minimum is not less than 1.8 meters, otherwise it will produce a sense of pressure.
The distance between the railings: The center distance of the two railings should not be greater than 12.5 cm, otherwise the child’s head is easy to extend.
The reasonable height of the handrail: to the position of the human body, usually between 80-110 cm.
The height and depth of the building: the ideal step height of the stairs should be 15-21 cm, and the depth of the step surface is 21-27 cm. This is the easiest and comfortable amplitude when going up and down the stairs. The order of the stairs: generally about 15th.
Three ways of valuation of the stairs
1. The pricing method is more common according to steps. The price of the upcoming stairs is on average to every step. To step by step.
2. Capture for a set of ladders within 13-14 steps. This kind of pricing method is mostly for steel and wooden stairs, that is, manufacturers make finished stairs according to a certain specifications, and the entire set of offers. If the customer has special requirements, it will be adjusted accordingly.
3. The price according to a single piece, that is, each staircase parts have their own prices, and the amount of various components is valued according to the actual needs of various components. Most of the high -end solid wood stairs are priced according to single parts, and all components are quoted, including military columns, large columns, small columns, railings, handrails, pedals, expansion screws, etc.
Under normal circumstances, the consumer price of the stairs should be based on 10%of the overall decoration cost.
For the various corners of the indoor space, the upper strategy is a subsidiary space that is planned to be adjacent to its main space. For example, the scattered space next to the living room can be used as a simple living room or study room. The corner furniture is selected at the corner to make the inconspicuous and embarrassing position lively and lively.
Style and material
The decoration of the stairs requires the staircase, handrail and pillar. Materials include wooden products, iron products (two types: forging and cast iron), marble, glass and stainless steel.
Wooden product stairs
This is the largest market share. The main reason why consumers like is that the wood itself has a warmth, coupled with the easy match with the floor material and color, and the construction is relatively convenient. Consumers who choose wood products as stairs should pay attention to the configuration of the floor size of the staircase when choosing the floor. At present, the size of the floor on the market is 90 cm long and 10 cm wide. The wide floor, such a grid for only two pieces is enough, but one less seam, it is easy to build and maintain. The choice of pillars and armrests should be matched as possible with wood and styles.
The stairs made of steel materials are mostly used for emergency stairs for fire channels, climbing ladders, and less home improvement
This is actually a composite staircase of wooden products and steel products. Some staircase handrails and guardrails are iron products, and the staircase is still wooden products; some are iron products, handrails and staircases are made of wooden products. There are a lot of customers who choose such stairs. Compared with the pure wood product stairs, this stairs seem to have a lively interest. In the future, there are more rooms for forging patterns in the staircase fence, with columns, and patterns composed of various types of patterns. This type of staircase handrails are customized, complex processing, and high prices. The stairs of cast iron are relatively less styles. Generally, manufacturers have fixed manufactured styles, and customers can choose from. Color can be processed according to customer requirements. Compared to the forging stairs, the cast iron stairs appear slightly stable. The price of such stairs is a bit cheaper than forging. Marble stairs
Customers who choose this kind of stairs generally laid marble on the strata. In order to maintain the unity of indoor color and materials, the stairs are paved with marble. However, most of the choices of staircase design armrests are mostly retained in the choice of wooden products to increase the warm color material in the cold space of cold ice. The price of such decorations mainly depends on whether marble is expensive.
This is the new style now, which is more suitable for modern young people. Most of the glass uses scrub, incomplete transparency, and a thickness of more than 10mm. This type of stairs also use wooden products as an armrest. The price is a little lower than imported marble.
Stainless steel stairs
This is one of the very few “alternative” materials. It sprays sub -light pigments on the surface of the material, and it does not feel shining. Such staircase materials and processing costs are high.
In addition, there are also staircase guardrails such as steel wires and hemp ropes. With the wooden floor and armrests, it looks good. This kind of trendy and a bit back to nature, the price is low, and it is also a fashionable choice.
The staircase is part of the entire interior decoration. What kind of materials to choose to make the stairs must be coordinated with the entire decoration, otherwise it will feel nondescript and spend more money without achieving the ideal effect.
The barrier -free staircase design should be designed below for a long time
1. Cabin -free stairs should comply with the following regulations:
1. It is advisable to adopt a straight staircase;
2. The width of the public building stairs should not be less than 280mm, and the step height should not be greater than 160mm;
3. Do not use a step without kick -free and right -angle;
4. It is advisable to make armrests on both sides;
5. If the railing staircase is adopted, safety blocking measures should be set under the railing;
6. The stepping surface should be flat or slippery or set the anti -slide bar on the front edge of the stepping surface;
7. Blind lanes should be set at 250mm ~ 300mm from the starting point and the end point;
8. The colors of stepping noodles and kicks should be distinguished and compared;
9. The first step of the ups and downs of the stairs should be obviously different from the platform in color or material.
2. The barrier -free design of the steps should meet the following requirements:
1. The width of the indoor and outdoor steps of public buildings should not be less than 300mm, the step height should not be greater than 150mm, and it should not be less than 100mm;
2. Strike should be non -slip;
3. steps with level three and levels should be set up on both sides;
4. The first step of the ups and downs of steps should be significantly different from other steps in color or material.
Beautiful and saving stairs: This building
The beautiful curve hovering on the staircase makes the design map of the spin staircase beautiful and generous. After the construction, it will become a beautiful scenery in the living room. For a narrow space, installing a spin ladder will be a wise choice. The rotary ladder occupies the smallest area, and the 60 cm step stairs only need to have an open space with a diameter of about 1 meter.
The generous and beautiful arc ladder: The design of the arc staircase is a complete curve to achieve the connection of upstairs, beautiful and generous. Its shape is not as rigid as the straight ladder, which can be more exaggerated. The color can be unified with the indoor color, and the contrasting color tone can also be selected, which can achieve a strong contrast, which can achieve satisfactory and beautiful effects.
Simple and tough straight ladder: The design drawing of the attic and attic staircases is the simplest, and the simple geometric lines are tight and tough. This staircase occupies more space, and small apartment houses are used less.
L -shaped stairs that saves space: If the attic is very small, it is recommended to choose a compact L -type attic staircase design drawing. Its pedal length is only 60 cm, and its unique pedal design requires alternating left and right feet. However, pay attention to the problem that each pedal can only be unilaterally suffocated. It is recommended to choose a strong -solid board. There are more L -shaped ladders in small apartments. Don’t underestimate this small detail, can save a lot of space.
Unique U -shaped ladder: General U -type attic staircase design maps occupy a large space and are suitable for large -scale living rooms. However, the size of this U -shaped ladder is relatively small, and the entire stairs structure presents a natural form, which is unique.
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